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Flight Yoke System

flight yoke system

    flight yoke
  • A yoke, alternatively known as control column, is a device used for piloting in most fixed-wing aircraft.Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 563. Aviation Supplies & Academics, 1997. ISBN 1-56027-287-2

  • A set of organs in the body with a common structure or function

  • instrumentality that combines interrelated interacting artifacts designed to work as a coherent entity; "he bought a new stereo system"; "the system consists of a motor and a small computer"

  • A set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network

  • A set of connected things or parts forming a complex whole, in particular

  • (physical chemistry) a sample of matter in which substances in different phases are in equilibrium; "in a static system oil cannot be replaced by water on a surface"; "a system generating hydrogen peroxide"

  • a group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole; "a vast system of production and distribution and consumption keep the country going"

Boeing C-17 Globemaster III in Seafair 2010

Boeing C-17 Globemaster III in Seafair 2010

The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is capable of rapid strategic delivery of troops and cargo to main operating bases, or directly to forward bases in the deployment area. The aircraft is also able to perform tactical airlift and airdrop missions when required.

General Characteristics:

Primary Function: Cargo and troop transport
Prime Contractor: Boeing Company
Power Plant: 4 Pratt & Whitney F117-PW-100 turbofan engines
Thrust: 40,440 pounds, each engine
Speed: 450 knots at 28,000 feet (8,534 meters) (Mach .74)
Service Ceiling: 45,000 feet at cruising speed (13,716 meters)
Range: Global with in-flight refueling
Crew: 3 (2 pilots; 1 loadmaster)
Maximum Peacetime Takeoff Weight: 585,000 pounds (265,352 kilograms)
Load: - 102 troops/paratroops; 48 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants;
- 170,900 pounds (77,519 kilograms) of cargo (18 pallet positions)
Unit Cost Development: $237 million (2007)


The C-17 incorporates many of the military jet transport standards — a high-set wing (swept 25 degrees), T-tail, rear cargo-loading assembly and heavy-duty retractable landing gear with fuselage blister fairings. The aircraft also features a state-of-the-art "glass cockpit" (with four multi-function displays and a HUD for each pilot), a GEC fly-by-wire control system (featuring a stick rather than the conventional yoke), four high-performance turbofan engines, an advanced supercritical wing section, winglets, and a "blown-flap" system. The aircraft is operated by a crew of three (pilot, co-pilot and loadmaster).

With a payload of 160,000 pounds, the C-17 can take off from a 7,600-foot airfield, fly 2,400 nautical miles, land on a small austere airfield in 3,000 feet or less. It can be refueled in flight.

* Cargo Compartment - Capacity: 18 fully-loaded 463L-type cargo pallets (88" x 108" @ 10,000 pound (4,536kg) capacity); up to 40 containers for Container Delivery System (CDS) airdrops; 102 troops; 48 litter and 54 ambulatory patients and attendants; three AH-64A Apache helicopters; one main battle tank; three Bradley armored vehicles.

Able to accommodate nearly 100 percent more cargo volume than the C-141B Starlifter, the C-17 can carry virtually all of the Army's air-transportable, outsized combat equipment. It is also able to airdrop paratroopers and cargo. All cargo is loaded through a large ramp/door assembly in the rear of the aircraft.

* Engines: The C-17 is powered by four fully-reversible Pratt & Whitney PW2040 series turbofans, designated as F117-PW-100 by the Air Force. Each engine is rated at 40,440 pounds (180kN) of thrust and employ thrust reversers that direct the flow of air upward and forward to avoid ingestion of dust and debris.

* Supercritical Wing: Like other military transports, the C-17 uses a "supercritical" wing. These are advanced airfoil designs that enhance the range, cruising speed, and fuel efficiency of jet aircraft by producing weaker shock waves that create less drag and permit high efficiency.

* Winglets: In the mid-1970s, the NASA-Langley Research Center developed the winglet concept through wind tunnel research. Winglets are small, wing-like vertical surfaces at each wingtip of an aircraft that enable the airplane to fly with greater efficiency. They curve flow at the wingtip to produce a forward force on the airplane, similar to the sail on a sail boat. Each C-17 winglet spans 9 feet, 4 inches.

* Powered Lift & STOL Capability: A key element of the C-17 is the special flap system, first developed by a team of researchers at NASA-Langley in the mid-1950s and later demonstrated on the YC-15 prototype. The externally "blown-flap" or "powered-lift" system enables the aircraft to make slow, steep approaches with heavy cargo loads. With this powered-lift system, the engine exhaust flow is directed below and through slotted flaps to produce additional lifting force and allow steeper landing descents.

Short TakeOff and Landing (STOL) capability is achieved when the trailing-edge flaps are extended into the exhaust flow from the engines during takeoffs and landings. The engine exhaust is deflected downward by the slotted-flaps to augment the wing lift. This allows aircraft with "blown flaps" to operate at roughly twice the lift coefficient of that of conventional jet transport aircraft.

The C-17 can operate on small, austere airfields with runways as short as 3,000 feet (914m) and as narrow as 90 feet (27.4m) wide, and can complete a 180-degree three-point "star" turn within 80 feet (24.4m). Also, when fully loaded, the aircraft is capable of backing up a 2 percent gradient slope using the directed flow thrust reversers.

* Composite Materials: Sixteen-thousand pounds of composite materials have been applied to the C-17. Several of the major control surface and secondary structu

The Spruce Goose

The Spruce Goose

Evergreen Aviation & Space Museum, McMinnville Oregon

The centerpiece or "crown jewel" of the Evergreen Aviation Museum is a plane known around the world as the "Spruce Goose." In July 1942, the world was at war. America had just lost 800,000 tons of her supply ships to German U-boats. Henry Kaiser, famed industrialist and builder of “Liberty” ships, proposed a fleet of flying transports to safely move troops and materiel across the Atlantic. Kaiser approached Howard Hughes with his idea. Together they formed the Hughes Kaiser Corporation and obtained an $18,000,000 government contract to construct three flying boats.

Howard Hughes had an international reputation as an oil and businessman, movie producer, aeronautical engineer and world-class aviator. Henry Kaiser partnered with Hughes because of Hughes' aircraft design and construction expertise. Hughes and his team of skilled engineers designed a single hull flying boat capable of carrying 750 troops. The plans called for eight 3,000 horsepower engines, a mammoth fuel storage and supply system, and wings 20 feet longer than a football field. They called the prototype aircraft the HK-1, standing for the Hughes Kaiser design number one.

Encountering and dealing with tremendous design and engineering problems, the Hughes team developed new concepts for large-scale hulls, flying control surfaces, and complex power boost systems. Hughes engineers created the first "artificial feel system" in the control yoke, which gave the pilot the feeling he was flying a smaller aircraft, but with a force multiplied two hundred times. For example, for each pound of pressure exerted on the control yoke by the pilot, the elevator received 1,500 pounds of pressure to move it.

Adhering to the government mandate not to use materials critical to the war effort (such as steel and aluminum), the Hughes team constructed the Flying Boat out of wood. Hughes perfected a process called "Duramold" to create almost every part of the plane. Originally developed by Fairchild Aircraft Company, Howard Hughes purchased the rights to use Duramold in large aircraft. The Duramold process is a plywood-like series of thin wood laminations, with grains laid perpendicular to each other. Workers permeating the laminations with plastic glue, then they shaped and heated the pieces until cured. The result is a material that many engineers agree is both lighter and stronger than aluminum.

All of the research and development that went into the new seaplane delayed the construction process. In mid 1944, Henry Kaiser withdrew from the project, and Hughes took personal responsibility for all facets of the flying boat's design and production. He renamed the gigantic seaplane H-4, representing his aircraft company’s fourth design.

After the war’s end in 1945, criticism of the project mounted. The Flying Boat prototype had exceeded the government’s funding allowance and the U.S. Senate formed an investigation committee to probe alleged misappropriation of funds. Hughes invested $7,000,000 of his own into the project to keep it going. While Hughes testified before the investigative committee in Washington, D.C., the Hughes team assembled the Flying Boat in the Long Beach dry dock. After his interrogation, Hughes was determined to demonstrate the capability of his Flying Boat. He returned to California and immediately ordered the seaplane readied for taxi tests.

On November 2, 1947, a crowd of expectant observers and newsmen gathered. With Hughes at the controls, the giant Flying Boat glided smoothly across a three-mile stretch of harbor. From 35 miles per hour, it cruised to 90 during the second taxi test when eager newsmen began filing their stories. During the third taxi test Hughes surprised everyone as he ordered the wing flaps lowered to 15 degrees and the seaplane lifted off the water. He flew her for a little over a mile at an altitude of 70 feet for approximately one minute. The short hop proved to skeptics that the gigantic craft could fly!

Spruce Goose

After the flight, Hughes placed the Flying Boat in its custom built hangar and ordered her maintained in flight-ready condition. She remained in “hibernation” for 33 years at a cost of approximately one million dollars per year. In 1976, after Hughes' death, his holding company - Summa Corporation - made plans to disassemble the historic seaplane into nine pieces for various museums unless a non-profit organization stepped forward to adopt her.

At the last minute Summa made arrangements to donate the aircraft to the non-profit Aero Club of Southern California, which then leased it to the Wrather Corporation, headed by entrepreneur Jack Wrather and his wife, Bonita Granville Wrather. Wrather Corporation moved the Flying Boat to a temporary location while they built a custom dome to place her on exhibit. On October 29, 1980, the Flying Boat emerged from seclusion and into the world’s spotlight. The w

flight yoke system

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